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Taw(i)niya, Daw(i)niya

Other Hittite Names:

Inventory No 2969
   
Geographical Type City
Determinative URU
   
   
Literature Baltacioğlu, H., 2004: “Yazılı Kayanaklar ve Arkeolojik Veriler Işığında Hattuša ile Arinna Arasındaki Uzaklık”, Archivum Anatolicum 7, 13-47.

Barjamovic, G., 2011: A Historical Geography of Anatolia in the Old Assyrian Colony Period, Copenhagen.

Cornelius, F., 1967: “Neue Arbeiten zur hethitischen Geographie”, Anatolica 1, 62-77.

Forlanini, M., 2008a: “The Central Provinces of Hatti: An Updating”, in: K. Strobel (ed.), New Perspectives on the Historical Geography and Topography of Anatolia in the II and I Millennium B.C.(Eothen 16), Firenze, 145-188.

Forlanini, M., 2008b: “The Historical geography of Anatolia and the transition from the kārum-period to the Early Hittite Empire”, in: J.G. Dercksen (ed.), Anatolia and the Jazira during the Old Assyrian Period, Leiden, 57-86.

Güterbock, H.G., 1961: "The North-Central Area of Hittite Anatolia", JNES 20:85-97.

Haas, V., 1994: Geschichte der hethitischen Religion, Leiden – New York – Köln.

Houwink ten Cate, Ph.H.J., 1992: “The Hittite Storm God: his Role and his Rule According to Hittite Cuneiform Sources”, in: D.J.W. Meijer (ed.), Natural Phenomena, Amsterdam, 83-148.

de Martino, S., 2006: “The City Tawiniya and the Meaning of the Word paššu- in the Hittite Texts”, in R. Bombi – G. Cifoletti – F. Fusco - L. Innocente – V. Orioles (eds.), Studi Linguistici in onore di Roberto Gusmani, Alessandria, 537-547.

de Martino, S., 2012: “Tawiniya.B. In den hethischen Quellen”, RlA 13, 491-492.

Mazoyer, M., 2002: “À propos des Sanctuaires de telipinu”, Hethitica 15, 183-194.

Pierallini, S., 2002: “L’edificio tarnu e le porte urbiche di Hattusa”, in: P. Taracha (ed.), Silva Anatolica, Warsaw, 269-272.

Strobel, K., 2008: “Tawinija/Tavium and the Regional Hittite Road Network”, in: K. Strobel (ed.), New Perspectives on the Historical Geography and Topography of Anatolia in the II and I Millennium B.C.(Eothen 16), Firenze, 281-302.

   
   
Administration Tawiniya was one of the centers charged with the accumulation and redistribution of goods: VBoT 68 II 17’ and KUB 26 2 rev. 7’ show that Tawiniya was one of the AGRIG towns, that is a place where there was a storehouse.

The threshing floor of the ploughmen of the country (KUR) of Tawiniya depend from the palace of Samuha (KUB 45 179 II 3-7).

The province of Tawiniya included several villages, such as Samuraliya, Sippuwa, Zaharliya, Kukkutana, Harkiya, Summanzana, Kasduwara, Miltiya, Zehhasma, Kattalasha (KBo 16 57 obv. 3’ – 6’, rev. 1-6); some of these same villages occur also in the personnel list KBo 10 10 V 3’-26’: Summanzana, Sippuwa, Kukkudana, Harkiya; see Forlanini 2008a, 163-164.
   
Cult The main deity of Tawiniya was Telipinu; Telipinu of Tawiniya is mentioned among the divine witnesses of the following treaties: treaty between Suppiluliuma I and Sattiwaza of Mittani (CTH 51); treaty between Suppiluliuma I and Tette of Nuhhasse (CTH 53); the name of this god can be integrated in the gap of the treaty concluded by Mursili II with Tuppi-Tesob of Amurru (CTH 62). See also the late Hittite text (time of Suppiluliuma II) ABoT 56.
Telipinu of Tawiniya is mentioned also in the prayer of Muwattalli II to the Assembly of Gods through te Storm-God of Lightening (CTH 381); it appears also in the Birth Ritual KUB 30 29, where he bears the appellative ḫadugaša “awesome”.

In the already mentioned prayer of Muwattalli also the goddes Katahha is mentioned among the deities of Tawiniya (II 46 47: Telipinu of Tawiniya, Katahha, male gods, female gods, mountains (and) rivers of Tawiniya).
In KUB 54 67, a frament of a festival text, it is said that the cult of Katahha must be celebrated at Tawiniya as long as the temple of this goddess is not ready in the city of Hadanta (rev. 12’-15’).

In the fragmentary tablet KBo 45 129 rev. 11 the tutelary deity (LAMMA) of Tawiniya occurs.

Tawiniya is mentioned in connection with the main Hittite festivals:
Tawiniya is one of the places where the cerimonies of the AN.TAḪ.SUM-festivale are celebrated: in the outline of this festival KBo 20 26 I 26, tha can be integrated with the oracular tablet KUB 25 27 I 5’-21’, we read that on the fourth day the “hunting bag” (kurša) is carried from Hattusa to Tawiniya.
In the tablet KUB 55 5 + IBoT 4 70, an ouline of the nuntarriyasha-festival, 20th day, the court goes to Tawiniya where the “festival of the torches (zuppari)” (IV 21’-24’).
Tawiniya plays an important role in the ceremonies for the goddess Teteshapi, that presumably were part of the purulli-festival (see Haas 1994, 729-736); in KUB 11 32 + the NIN.DINGIR priestess leaves Hattusa in order to go to Tawiniya; on the way to this latter city she stops in Wargatawi (III 10-25). Lastly Tawiniya is mentioned in some of the tablets of the KI.LAM festival.

Among the cult personel of Tawiniya we quote:
the GUDU priest of T.: KBo 7 35 + I 13’; KBo 20 26 + KBo 25 34 obv. 8’; KBo 17 43 I 8’;
the hapi-men of T.: KBo 17 42 + IV 17’; KBo 17 43 I 18’ (in both these texts the hapi-men of T. bring liver meat as offering); KBo 19 161 I 4’.
   
History Tawiniya occurs in a fragmentary passage of the so called “Tale of Zalpa” (KBo 3 38 obv. 17’); people who were involved in the conflict with Zalpa were settled in Tawiniya. The mention of the latter in this text shows that it was part of the territories ruled by the predecessors of Hattusili I.
   
   
Ancient Textual Documentation CTH 3: KBo 3.38 obv. 17’
CTH 51: KBo 1.1 rev. 45’
CTH 53: KBo 1.4 + IV 22
CTH 62: KBo 50.28 (+) KBo 5.9 (+) KBo 22.39 III 29’
CTH 231: VBoT 68 II 15’-17’; KUB 26.2 rev. 5’-10’
CTH 235: KBo 10.10 V 26’
CTH 238: KBo 16.57 obv. 2’, rev 7
CTH 256: ABoT 56 II 12’-13’
CTH 276: KBo 10.6 I 9
CTH 381: KUB 6.45 II 46, 47 = KUB 6.46 III 14
CTH 430: KUB 30.29 obv. 12
CTH 483: KUB 15.34 I 18
CTH 484: KUB 15.31 I 14
CTH 521: KBo 12.140 obv. 7
CTH 530: KBo 45.179 II 5
CTH 604: KBo 10.20 I 26 = KUB 30.39 obv. 22
CTH 625: KBo 4.13 + I 20’
CTH 626: KUB 55.5 + IBoT 4.70 IV 21’, 23’
CTH 627: KBo 20.26 + KBo 25.34 obv. 8’; KBo 16.68 + I 6; KBo 17.21 + obv. 30; KBo 17.9 + III 15’; KBo 25.18 IV 8’
CTH 629: KUB 25.27 I 7’
CTH 649: KBo 17.42 + KUB 43.48 + KUB 56.46 VI 17’; KBo 17.43 I 8’, 18’
CTH 669: KUB 10.91 II 12’
CTH 670: KBo 34.167 obv. 1, 4; KUB 54.67 rev. 14; KBo 43.136, 1’; KBo 44.144 obv. 3’; IBoT 4.131 obv. r.col. 11’
CTH 738: KUB 11.32 + III 10; KBo 7.35 + , 5’; KBo 19.161 I 4’; KBo 19.161 I 4’; KBo 19.163 III 11; KBo 25.48 II 9’;KBo 25.167, 3’; KBo 37.5 + VBoT 32 I 3’; KBo 45.129 IV 11’
CTH 832: KUB 53.35 II 3
   
   
Net of Routes One of the gates of Hattusa is called in some texts “Tawiniya Gate” (KUB 10 91 II 11’-12’; KUB 15 31 I 13-14; KUB 15 34 I 18). This gate might be the “Lion Gate” in the Upper City, on the south-western side of the Hittite capital (see lastly de Martino 2008, 540-542 with previous literature); differently, according to Güterbock 1961, 86-87, and Pierallini 2002, the Tawiniya Gate was in the Lower City of Hattusa.

According to KBo 10 20 I 26, outline of the AN.TAḪ.ŠUM-festival, Tawiniya was one day’s journey from Hattusa, since, as we have already said, the” huntig bag” is carried from Hattusa to Tawiniya in one day; therefore Tawiniya cannot be too far away from the Hittite capital. Barjiamovic (2011, 303) wrote that this date is extremly vague, since the text does not give information about the way of travelling; he supposes that the “hunting bag” might have been carried, for example, by a mounted messenger, who could have reached in one day also a place located at a distance of 100km. from Hattusa. Concerning this hypothesis, we have to observe that in no Hittite festival text mounted horses are used for cult transfers.
Forlanini (2008a: 151) stresses the fact that in the already quoted text the transfer of the “hunting bag” from Tawiniya back to Hattusa requires one stop in the town of Hiyasna; this scholar takes this date in support of the hypothesis that the travel from Tawiniya to Hattusa could not be covered in one day; differently, accordinge de Martino (2008, 540) the stop in Hiyasna had only cult reasons and it was done only during the trip back to Hattusa, but not during the transfer from Hattusa to Tawiniya.
Lastly, according to Forlanini (2008a: 164; 2008b: 68 n. 54), Tawiniya cannot be too close to Hattusa, because each one of these two cities was the capital of an indipendent kingdom at the time of the Old Assyrian colonies.

   
Localization
(sure or highly probable)
   
Other Localization Proposals At Büyüknefes/Tavium: Garstang – Gurney 1959, 11-12; Haas 1994, 729; Strobel – Gerber 2000, 217-218; de Martino 2006, with literature; Strobel 2008, 281-302.

Near Delice: Forlanini 2008a: 163-164.
Near Sungurlu: Cornelius 1967: 70.

Close to Eskiyapar and Alaca: see lastly, Howink ten Cate 1992: 97; Mazoyer 2002: 186; Baltacioğlu 2004 (at Alaca ?).

West or north-west of Hattusa: Barjamovic 2011: 303.

South-west of Hattusa: Forlanini 2008b: 68 n. 54
   
   
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  Filled by (15.02.2013 12:28:41)
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