The Cultural Heritage of Hittite Anatolia
An International and Interdisciplinary Project for a

Hittite Historical Atlas
 

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Hahha, Hahhum

Other Hittite Names:

Inventory No 2975
   
Geographical Type City
Determinative URU
   
   
Literature Archi, A. - P.E. Pecorella - M. Salvini 1971: Gaziantep E La Sua Regione, Roma.

Bilgiç, E., 1946: “Anadolu’nun İlk Yazılı Kaynaklarında Yer Adları ve Yerlerinin Tayini Üzerine İncelemeler”, Belleten 10, Ankara: 381-423.

Çeçen, S. - K. Hecker 1995: “ina mātika eblum, zu einem neuen Text zum Wegerecht, in der Kültepe-Zeit”, Festschrift für Wolfram Freiherrn von Soden zum 85. Geburstag am 19. Juni 1993, 31-41.

Garelli, P., 1963: Les Assyriens en Cappadoce, Paris.

Garelli, P., 1998: “Hahhum un relais assyrien sur la route commerciale e la Cappodoce, 34. International Assyriology Congress, Ankara: 451-456.

Garstang, J.,1942: “Šamuḫa and Malatia”, JNES 1: 450-459.

Garstang, J. - O.R.Gurney 1959: The Geography of the Hittite Empire, London.

Goetze, A., 1953: “An Old Babylonian Itinerary”, JCS 7: 51-72.

Günbattı, C., 2004: “Two Treaty Texts Found At Kültepe”, Assyria and Beyond Studies Present to Mogens Trolle Larsen, 249-268.

Günbattı, C., 2011: “Eski Anadolu’da Yapılan İlk Antlaşmalar”, Anadolu’nun Önsözü. Kültepe Kaniş-Karumu, (F. Kulakoğlu, S. Kangal eds.), Kayseri: 70-73.

Güterbock, H.G., 1961: "The North-Central Area of Hittite Anatolia", JNES 20: 85-97.

del Monte, G. - J. Tischler 1978: Die Orts- und Gewässernamen der hethitischen Texte (RGTC 6), Wiesbaden.

del Monte G. F., 1992: Die Orts und Gewässernamen der Hethitischen Texte, (RGTC 6/2), Wiesbaden.

Nashef, Kh., 1991: Die Orts-und Gewässernamen der altassyrischen Zeit,( RGTC 4), Wiesbaden.

Orlin, L.L., 1970: Assyrian Colonies in Cappadocia, Paris.

von Schuler, E., 1965: Die Kaškäer, Berlin.

Yiğit, T., 1994: I. Hattušili ve Dönemi, (Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi), Ankara.

Yiğit, T., 2008: “Uršu Kuşatması Metni’nin Yeniden Değerlendirilmesi”, Anadolu/Anatolia 31, 2006, Ankara: 43-55.



   
   
Administration From the texts of Kültepe, it is seen that the city of Hahhum owns a rubā’um (king), šarrum (vassal king), ekallum (palace) and a kumrum (priest).
   
Cult
   
History Mentioned among the karums in Kültepe Layer II, the city was referred as Hah(h)um in pre- and proto-Sargonian texts, Hahum in Old Assyria and Old Babylonia, Hahha in Hittite texts and Hahi(a) in Urartian texts. Before the Colonies Period, we come across the city of Hahhum in the period of Lagashian King Gudea in the first time. Gudea says that he brought gold from Hahhum while he tells about the temple constructed for the God Ningursu (Kuzuoğlu 2007: 67).
In a text of agreement signed between Hahhum and Assyria (Kt 00/k 10 4. column 16’-17’) it is mentioned that Hahhum was located in a mountanous area, and that Assyrians used boats or ships to cross the river (Günbattı 2004: 258).
Being one of the places where Hattušili I made a campaign, the city of Hahha was captured by the king. In the text of KBo 10.2 rev. III 1-42 where the campaign was told, the king also referred to the campaign of Hahha made by the Akkadian King Sargon some seven centuries ago. In addition, he also mentions that only Sargon could cross the river of Mala (Euphrates) before him, but the city coul not be taken, and that he destroyed the city (Yiğit 1994: 155). From the text of KBo 10.2 III 6-9, it is understood that the city was sieged for three times and pillaged after that (Yiğit 2008: 45). The city of Hahha shows itself as an important trade center in Assyrian Trade Colonies Period. In the documents dating to this period, the city was recorded as Hahhum.
   
   
Ancient Textual Documentation CTH 1.B: KUB 26.71 IV 15
CTH 4.I: KBo 10.1 Rev. 2, 24
CTH 4.II.A: KBo 10.2 III 1, 6, 8, 14, 33, 38, 41
CTH 4.II.E: KUB 23.20 12
CTH 81.B: KBo 3.6 + II 8
CTH 81.E: KUB 1.6 II 17
CTH 262: IBoT 1.36 IV 1, 2, 14
CTH 670.185: KBo 20.94 3
Kt. 00/k 10
   
   
Net of Routes
   
Localization
(sure or highly probable)
As Günbattı suggested, one must look for the city of Hahhum in and around Samsat.
   
Other Localization Proposals Bilgiç locates Hahhum in Divriği (Bilgiç 1946: 411-412), Garstang in Kangal (Garstang 1942: 452 f.); Goetze (1953: 68 f.), Güterbock (1961:96), Garelli (1963:97) and Schuler (1965: 26 n. 88) in Elbistan, Garstang-Gurney (1959: 25 f.) in Alaca, Orlin (1970: 39 f.) in the vicinity of Harput, Archi-Pecorella-Salvini (1971: 37 ff.) at the west or east shore of Euphrates, Çeçen-Hecker (1993: 39), Garelli (1998: 451-56) in Lidar Höyük, Günbattı locates Hahhum in Samsat, on Tigris (Günbattı 2004: 261-262 ; Günbattı 2011: 72).
In the text of KBo 10.2 Rev. 29-42 which gives details about the campaigns of Hattušili I, it is written that the king captured the city of Hahha after crossing over Mala River. In this situation, one must look for Hahha in the west shore of Euphrates. From the text, it is understood that it was a neighbour of Haššuwa (Yiğit 1994: 185).
   
   
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