The Cultural Heritage of Hittite Anatolia
An International and Interdisciplinary Project for a

Hittite Historical Atlas

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Other Hittite Names:

Inventory No 2976
Geographical Type City Land
Determinative URU KUR.URU
Literature Archi, A. - P.E. Pecorella - M. Salvini 1971: Gaziantep E La Sua Regione, Roma.

Cornelius, F., 1958: "Geographie der Hethiterreiches", OrNS 27, 225-251, 373-398.

Forlanini, M. 1979: "Appunti di geografia etea", Studia Mediterranea P. Meriggi dicata, 165-185.

Forlanini, M., 1985: “Remarques geographiques sur les textes cappadociens, Hethitica 6: 45-67.

Forlanini M. - M. Marazzi 1986: "Anatolia" Atlante Storico del Vicino Oriente Antico 4.3, Roma.

Forlanini, M., 1997: “Gab Es eine Hethitische Stadt Hamsa?”, Archivum Anatolicum 3: 117-123.

Goetze, A., 1940: Kizzuwatna and the Problem of Hittite Geography, New Haven.

Güterbock, H.G., 1938: “Die historische Tradition und ihre literarische Gestaltung bei Babyloniern und Hethitern bis 1200 (2 Teil: Hethiter)”, ZA 44: 45-149.

Güterbock, H.G., 1964: “Sargon of Akkad Mentioned by Ḫattušili I of Ḫatti”, JCS 18: 1-6.

Kupper, J.-R., 1949: “Uršu”, RA 43: 79-87.

Miller, J. L., 2001: “Anum-Hirbi and His Kingdom”, Altorientalische Forschungen 28: 65-101.

del Monte, G. - J. Tischler 1978: Die Orts- und Gewässernamen der hethitischen Texte (RGTC 6), Wiesbaden.

del Monte G. F., 1992: Die Orts und Gewässernamen der Hethitischen Texte, (RGTC 6/2), Wiesbaden.

Nashef, Kh., 1991: Die Orts-und Gewässernamen der altassyrischen Zeit,( RGTC 4), Wiesbaden.

Sir-Gavaz, Ö., 2008: “Hitit Kenti Zalpa’nın Yeri Üzerine”, Anadolu/Anatolia 3, 2006, Ankara:1-18.

Smith, S., 1956: “Ursu and Ḫaššum”, Gs Garstang: 35-43.

Soysal, O., 1981: “Zukrasi Metni ve Diğer Tarihsel Konulu Boğazköy Tabletleri Işığında M.Ö. 16. yy. Halap-Hassu(wa) ile Hitit Siyasal İlişkileri”, F. Ü. Ed. Fak. Derg. I/2: 15-64.
History Being one of the places where Hattušili I made a campaign, the city of Haššuwa is also an important target in the southeastern military policy of the king. The city was dependent on the Kingdom of Yamhad and it was under a profound impact of Hurrians.
The chronicles of Zukraši, which mentions the events taking place in the period of Hattušili I, is about the campaigns the king made into the city of Haššuwa. From the text (KBo 7.14 + KUB 36.100) it is understood that the city of Haššuwa was captured despite the help of Halap (Soysal 1981: 25-33). On the other side, the city of Haššu is mentioned in the text which is about the siege of Uršu (KBo 1.11 Obv. 16). The king was frustrated when the battering ram was broken druing the siege and ordered to bring a ram from the mountains of Haššu (Yiğit 1994: 153). The city of Haššuwa is used in the from of Haššu in the text of palatial chronicle no. KBo 3.34 (2BoTU 12 A). Often encountered during Assyrian Trade Colonies and Old Hittite periods, some researchers maintain that the city of Haššuwa was a Hurrian city (Gurney 1973: 243).
Ancient Textual Documentation CTH 4.I: KBo 10.1 Obv. 35, Rev. 22
CTH 4.II.A: KBo 10.2 II 13, 18, 36, 45, III 41
CTH 4.II.E: KUB 23.20 16
CTH 5: KBo 3.27 obv. I 28-31
CTH 7: KBo 1.11 Obv. 16
CTH 12.A: KUB 31.64 II 34
CTH 14.II.A: KUB 36.103 + KBo 22.3 14
CTH 14.IV.D: KUB 36.126 17
CTH 17.2: KUB 23.117 3
CTH 20.A: KBo 12.8 IV 14
CTH 211.14: KUB 26.83 5
CTH 337.1.A: KUB 48.99 7
CTH 530: KUB 53.56 Rev. 1
CTH 625.1.A: KBo 4.13 I 44
CTH 827: KBo 18.151 Rev. 3
2 BoTU 10 30
2 BoTU 23A II 17
2 BoTU 12A I 26
2 BoTU 12A I 24
2 BoTU 23A II 17
2 BoTU 10 29
2 BoTU 19, 4
Net of Routes
(sure or highly probable)
Both in the text of Zukraši (KBo 7.14 + KUB 36.100) and annals of Hattušili I (KBo 10.2 obv. II 11-23, 45, Rev. III 37-42) the city of Halap was mentioned as an ally of Haššuwa during its fight against the Hittites. In this situation, one must look for Haššuwa in a close vicinity of Halap. And also, the city must have been located in a short distance as understood from the siege of Uršu (KBo 1.11).
Other Localization Proposals Güterbock (1938: 126 f.), Goetze (1940:72) and Kupper (1949: 81) locates Haššuwa at the borders of Kommagene, Cornelius (1958: 384) at the border of Euphrates between Samsat and Kargamıš, Smith (1956: 35 f.) at the east of Euphrates, Güterbock (1964: 4 f.) at the east of Euphrates, maybe in Birecik in a latter work, Forlanini (1979: 172; 1986: Tav. XVI 5) in Maraş. Again, Forlanini suggests that one must look between Maraş and Kommagene (Forlanini 1985: 45-46). After some time, he indicates that there are some views regarding Tilmenhöyük to equal to Haššuwa (Forlanini 1997: 123).
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