The Cultural Heritage of Hittite Anatolia
An International and Interdisciplinary Project for a

Hittite Historical Atlas

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Other Hittite Names:

Inventory No 2977
Geographical Type City
Determinative URU
Literature Bilgiç, E., 1946: “Anadolu’nun İlk Yazılı Kaynaklarında Yer Adları ve Yerlerinin Tayini Üzerine İncelemeler”, Belleten 10, Ankara: 381-423.

Cornelius, F., 1955: “Hethitische Reisewege”, RHA 13/57: 49-62.

Cornelius, F., 1958: "Geographie der Hethiterreiches", OrNS 27, 225-251, 373-398.

Eisser, G. - J. Lewy 1930-35: Die altassyrischen Rechtsurkunden vom Kültepe, Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatisch-Aegyptischen Gessllschaft 33 und 35, Leipzig.

Forlanini, M., 1985: “Remarques geographiques sur les textes cappadociens, Hethitica 6: 45-67.

Garelli, P., 1963: Les Assyriens en Cappadoce, Paris.

Gül - Yılmaz, Ş., 2001: Kervan Güzergahlarına Işık Tutan Kültepe Metinleri ve Bunlardan Elde Edilen Sonuçlar, (Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi), Ankara.

Larsen, M.T., 1976: The Old Assyrian City-State and Its Colonies, Copenhagen.

Mellart, J., 1982: "Archaeological Evidence For Trade and Trade Routes Between Syria and Mesopotamia and Anatolia During the Early and the Begining of the Middle Bronze Age”, Studi Eblati V:15-32.

del Monte, G. - J. Tischler 1978: Die Orts- und Gewässernamen der hethitischen Texte (RGTC 6), Wiesbaden.

del Monte G. F., 1992: Die Orts und Gewässernamen der Hethitischen Texte, (RGTC 6/2), Wiesbaden.

Nashef, Kh., 1991: Die Orts-und Gewässernamen der altassyrischen Zeit,( RGTC 4), Wiesbaden.

Orlin, L.L., 1970: Assyrian Colonies in Cappadocia, Paris.

Administration Mentioned among the leading kingdoms in Kültepe Layer II Karums, the city of Hurme is an important kingdom in Colonies Period. From the texts, it is understood that the city of Hurma owned a king and a palace (Nashef 1991: 60-61).
Cult In the texts, there are some statements like Storm God of the city of Hurma (KBo 1.1 Rev. 42) and God Hantitaššu of the city of Hurma. KUB 6.45 I 74 f. =46 II 39 f. ; KBo 1.3 +KUB 3.17 Rev. 20 f.
History Mentioned as Hu-ra-ma in Old Assyria (Nashef 1991: 60), the city was referred to as Hu-ur-ma (del Monte- Tischler 1978: 119; del Monte 1992: 43 f.) and as Hu-ur-ma in texts dating to 2nd millennium BC (Marín 2001: 133). The commander, who carried out the siege of Uršu in the period of Hattušili I, was mentioned as ‘’ The man from Hurma, the palatial son of Šanda” in Šandan texts (KBo 3.34 Obv I 24).
Ancient Textual Documentation CTH 5: 2BoTU 10 II 20’CTH 19.II.C: 2 BoTU 23A III 22
CTH 8: 2 BoTU 12A II 8, 15 ; 2 BoTU 12A I 11,24
CTH 8.F: KBo 13.44 I 11
CTH 9.2: VBoT 33 6’
CTH 13.I.A: 2 BoTU 17A II 32’
CTH 42.A: KBo 5.3 I 45
CTH 517.A: KUB 38.12 IV 17’
CTH 51.I.A: KBo 1.1 Obv. 12 ; Rev. 42’,48
CTH 53.A: KBo 1.4 IV 30’
CTH 62.II.A: KBo 5.9 IV 4
CTH 62.II.A: KBo 22.39 III 12’
CTH 69.B:KUB 19.50+ IV 16’; IV 5’
CTH 69.C: KUB 31.83 Rev. 9’
CTH 76.A: KUB 21.1 + IV 17; IV 6,17
CTH 76.E: HT 8 13
CTH 88: KBo 6.28 Rev.33’
CTH 106.B.2: KBo 4.10 Rev.32
CTH 123: KBo 4.14 IV 24 = CTH 395.1.C: KUB 43.57 IV 23
CTH 213: KUB 23.75,7’
CTH 256: ABoT 56 II 22
CTH 276.7: KUB 8.69 III 10, 11
CTH 378.IV.A: KUB 14.13 I 7
CTH 381.B: KUB 6.46 II 39
CTH 409.II.2.T B: IBoT 3.99 4
CTH 584.4: KUB 15.23 Obv. 6’ ; CTH 584.3: KUB 15.11 III 13’
CTH 625.1.A: KBo 4.13 I 18’
CTH 625.1.A: KBo 4.13 I 34’
CTH 661.6: KUB 36.124
CTH 712.A: KUB 27.1 I 67
2 BoTU 13 Obv. 20’
Net of Routes
(sure or highly probable)
In one of the texts from Kültepe, the cities of Zalpa and Hurama were mentioned together. (İst. 12489). From the letter, it is understood that the city of Hurama was located in somewhere around the Assyrian customs border and that there existed an exchange inbetween due to its location. In our opinion, one must look for the city of Hurma in a close vicinity of Zalpa, probably in and around Gaziantep. And also, the fact that the siege of Uršu was carried out by a commander from Hurma in the periof of Hattušili I bears the possibility to look fort he city in the vicinity of Uršu.
Other Localization Proposals Some suggests to look for Hurama in an area of 30 km distance from Kaniš (Nashef 1991: 60-61). It is also mentioned that the city was the last destination before Kaniš from the direction of Assyria (Yılmaz (Gül) 2001: 43). There are some views that one must look for Hurama around Malatya and Elbistan (Bilgiç 1946: 386, n. 8, 394; Garelli 1963: 110-111, Forlanini 1985: 67; Mellart 1982: 29), while some suggest to look in the mountanous area between Kargamıš and Malatya (EL I, 243), and in the mountanous area at the southeast of Kaniš (Larsen 1976: 237). Cornelius locates Hurma in Gürün (Cornelius 1955: 55; 1958: 241). Orlin locates Hurma somewhere between Cerablus and Malatya (Orlin 1970: 43).
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