The Cultural Heritage of Hittite Anatolia
An International and Interdisciplinary Project for a

Hittite Historical Atlas
 

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Zalpa

Other Hittite Names:

Inventory No 2985
   
Geographical Type City Land
Determinative URU KUR.URU
   
   
Literature Albayrak, İ., 2003: “Kaniš-Karum’unun Bir Mektubu”, Archivum Anatolicum 6.1.

Albayrak, İ., 2006: Kültepe Tabletleri IV (Kt. o/k) Ankara.

Balkan, K.,1957: Mama Kralı Anum- Hirbi’nin, Kaniš Kralı Waršama’ya Gönderdiği Mektup, Ankara.

Bayram, S.,1997: “New and Some Rare Geographical Names in the Kültepe Texts”, Archivum Anatolicum 3: 41-66.

Beitzel, B.J.,1992: “The Old Assyrian Caravan road in the Mari Royal Archives”, Mari in Retrospect, Fifty Years of Mari and Mari Studies: 35-57.

Bilgiç, E. – H. Sever – C. Günbattı – S. Bayram 1990: Ankara Kültepe Tabletleri I, Ankara.

Bilgiç, E. – S. Bayram 1995: Ankara Kültepe Tabletleri II, Ankara.

del Monte, G. - J. Tischler 1978: Die Orts- und Gewässernamen der hethitischen Texte (RGTC 6), Wiesbaden.

del Monte G. F., 1992: Die Orts und Gewässernamen der Hethitischen Texte, (RGTC 6/2), Wiesbaden.

Donbaz, V.,1990: “Kültepe I-B Katı Tabletlerine Genel Bakış”, X.2 TTK: 433-451.

Duru, R., 1990: “Tilmen Sarayları”, X. TTK :121-131.

Duru, R., 2003: Unutulmuş Bir Başkent Tilmen, İstanbul.

Forlanini, M.,1995: “The Kings of Kaniš”, Atti Del II Congresso İnternazionale di Hittitologia, Pavia: 123-132.

Forlanini, M., 2004: “ La nascita di un impero Considerazioni sula prima fase della storia hittita: da Kaniš a Hattuša”, Orientalia 73: 363-389.

Garstang, J. - O.R.Gurney 1959: The Geography of the Hittite Empire, London.

Götze, A.,1957: “The Roads of Northern Cappadocia”, RHA 61: 91-103.

Götze, A., 1960: “Suffixes in ‘Kanishite’ Proper Names”, RHA 66: 45-55.

Götze, A., 1964: “Remarks on the Old Babylonian Itinenary”, JCS 18: 114-119.

Gurney, O.R., 1973: “Anatolica 1750-1600 BC.”,CAH II/1i: 228-255.

Günbattı, C.,1987: “Anakara Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi’nde Bulunan Üç Tablet”, DTCF Dergisi 31: 189-199.

Günbattı, C.,1998: “Karumlar Arasındaki Mektuplaşmalardan Yeni Örnekler”, XXXIV. Uluslararası Assiriyoloji Kongresi (H. Erkanal, V. Donbaz, A. Uğuroğlu eds.) 479-484.

Güterbock, H.G., 1938: “Die historische Tradition und ihre literarische Gestaltung bei Babyloniern und Hethitern bis 1200 (2 Teil: Hethiter)”, ZA 44: 45-149.

Haas, V., 1977: “Zalpa, Die Stadt am schwarzen Meer und das althethitische Königtum”, MDOG 109: 15-26.

Nashef, Kh., 1991: Die Orts-und Gewässernamen der altassyrischen Zeit,( RGTC 4), Wiesbaden.

Orlin, L.L., 1970: Assyrian Colonies in Cappadocia, Paris.

Otten, H.,1973: Eine althethitische Erzahlung um die Stadt Zalpa, Wiesbaden.

Sir-Gavaz, Ö., 2008: “Hitit Kenti Zalpa’nın Yeri Üzerine”, Anadolu/Anatolia 3, 2006, Ankara:1-18.

Ünal, A.,1981: “Hitit Kenti “Ankuwa’nın Tarihçesi ve Lokalizasyonu Hakkında”, Belleten 180: 433-455.

Ünal, A., 1986: “Das Motif der Kindesaussetzung in den anatolischen Literaturen”, K. Hecker – W. Sommerfeld (derl.), Keilschriftliche Literaturen: 129-136.

Ünal, A.,1997: “Hitit Metinlerinde Eski Asur Ticaret Kolonileri Çağıyla İlgili Kayıt ve Anımsamalar”, Archivum Anatolicum 3: 341-356.

Ünal, A., 2000: “Adana’da Kizzuwatna Krallığı Taş Devrinden Hitit Devleti’nin Yıkılışına Kadar Adana ve Çukurova Tarihi”, Efsaneden Tarihe, Tarihten Bugüne Adana: Köprübaşı: 43-69.

Ünal, A. – S. K. Girginer 2007: Çukurova-Kilikya, Taş Devri’nden Osmanlılar Dönemi’ne kadar Kilikya’da Tarihi Coğrafya, Tarih ve Arkeoloji, İstanbul.
   
   
Administration Presence of Zalpa Kingdom and its effect upon the peripheral kingdoms are clearly visible in Anitta text. (A: KBo 3.22, B: KUB 26.71, C: KUB 36.98).
In the section on the text KBo. 3.38 obv. 4-9; 18-28 which includes information about the period of Hattušili I, it is mentioned that there occurs a peace between Zalpa and Hattuša. Later, it is understood that the king sent his son Hakkarpili after the elderly people from Zalpa showed their will to have a ruler (king) from his father. At the backside of the same text (KBo 3.38 rev. 1-32), there are some details on the relations with Zalpa during the period of Muršili I, and it is told that a man named Happi, like Hakkarpili, was sent to Zalpa as a ruler. It is also recorded that both Hakkarpili and Happi revolted against Hattians (Otten 1973: 10-13).
   
Cult
   
History The city of Zalpa is known as an important center in Assyrian Trade Colonies Period. The city was mentioned as a Karum and Wabartum in the texts of Kültepe (Balkan 1957: 64-65 ; Gurney 1973: 240). In the archives of Boğazköy, the text of Anitta (A: KBo 3.22, B: KUB 26.71, C: KUB 36.98) is important in that it shows the presence of the Kingdom of Zalpa and its effect upon other local kingdoms. From the text, it is understood that Kingdom of Zalpa founded a domination over the Kingdom of Neša. It is also mentioned that Zalpa was captured by Anitta in the following period (Haas 1977: 20-21).

The text (KBo 3.38) gives us information about the relations between Hattuša and Zalpa for three generations. This text, also, touches upon the revolt by a person named Hakkarpili in the city of Zalpa during the period of Hattušili I.
In the text featured as a decree by Hattušili I (KBo 3.27 40-41), it is recorded that the man from Zalpa did not take its promise.
From the text about the six-year-practices by Hattušili I (KBo 10.2 obv. I 9-14), it is known that the king made a campaign to Zalpa a year after Šanahuitta. In Hittite legal texts, soldiers of Zalpa was told to be exempt from šahhan and luzzi (Mad: 54, Imparati 1992: 73-75). Zalpa does not show any important political or military role after Old Hittite Period.
Known as the Story of Kaniš Queen, the text (KBo 22.2) dating to the Old Hittite Period
contains some information regarding the location of the city of Zalpa.
Although the city of Zalpa gained an important place during pre-Hittite and Old Hittite Period, it does not show any important political and military role after the Old Hittite Period.
In Hittite legal texts, it is mentined that soldiers of Zalpa, together with some other cities were exemppt from šahhan and luzzi, but later, this exemption was removed (Imparati 1992: 73 f. art. 54).
   
   
Ancient Textual Documentation Kt.88/k 963, 9-30
14-2-80
Kt.n/k 1316
30.Kt.o/k 7, 9-10
42. Kt. o/k 26, 5
43. Kt. o/k 29, 4-5
Kt. n/k 602; 165-602-64, 1-5
İst. 12489
Kt. n/k 568; 165-568-64, 27-30
BIN,VI, 167, 8 vd.
27. Kt. o/k 24
Kt. 91/k 149, 2
Kt 91/k 167, 25-26
Kt k/k 98, 3-4
M.7536
CTH 2.1.A: KBo 12.3
CTH 5: KBo 3.27 Obv. 28, 31
CTH 14.III.A: KBo 22.4 Obv. I 3, 6
CTH 3.?: KBo 12.19 Obv. I 1-6.
   
   
Net of Routes Lihzina→Zalpa (KBo 12.19)

Zalpa→Haššuwa→Halap (KBo 3.27 Obv. I 28, 31)
   
Localization
(sure or highly probable)
According to the data gained from the Hittite cuneiform tablets, there are two cities of Zalpa, one around the mouth of Kızılırmak in Central Black Sea at the north of Anatolia, and the other at the north of Taurus ranges, between Euphrates and Central Anatolia Plateau. The one located in south, must be around Gaziantep, close to Karkamıš.
   
Other Localization Proposals There are two views regarding the location of Zalpa. The first view is to look for the city at the mouth of Kızılırmak to Black Sea. The second view is to look for Zalpa in and around Gaziantep based on the documents that point out that it was close to Assyria (For a summary and old literature, see del Monte – Tischler , RGTC 6 (1978) 490 f.; del Monte, RGTC 6/2 (1992) 191.)
For Zalpa=Tilmenhöyük equalisation, see Ünal 2002, map; Ünal 1981, 436 (note: 23) ; Ünal 1984, 90 (note: 16).
Also for Zalpa=Tilmenhöyük, see Duru 2003, 35.
Miller suggested that Zalpa and Zalwar were the same places (Miller 2001: 72 ff.).
Forlanini indicated that the one in south must have been located in Balikh River basin (Forlanini 2004: 367).
Beitzel locates Zalpa in the vicinity of Balikh River and Harran (Beitzel 1992: 40 f.).
Sir Gavaz suggested that one must look for Zalpa in south in and around Gaziantep (Sir Gavaz 2008: 4).
   
   
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  Filled by (09.04.2013 17:02:39)
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