The Cultural Heritage of Hittite Anatolia
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Hittite Historical Atlas
 

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Kargamıš

Other Hittite Names:

Inventory No 3001
   
Geographical Type City Land
Determinative URU KUR KUR.URU
   
   
Literature Altman, A., 2004: The Historical Prologue of the Hittite Vassal Treaties, Ramat-Gan.

Beckman, G. M., 1992: “Hittite Administration in Syria in the Light of the Textes from Hattuša, Ugarit and Emar” Bibliotheca Mesopotamica 25, New Horizons in the Study of Ancient Syria, (eds. M.W. Chavalos - J.C.V. Hayes): 41- 49.

Börker-Klähn J.,1994: “Ein Phrygier aus Kargamiš”, AoF 21:198.

Dinçol, A., 1982: “Hititler”, Anadolu Uygarlıkları Ansiklopedisi I, İstanbul: 18-120.

Dinçol, A., 2004: “Hititler, Son Tunç Çağı”, Arkeo-Atlas 3: 22-59.
   
   
Administration From Suppiluliuma I to Suppiluliuma II, Kargamıš witnessed only four kings against eight Hittite kings during the Hittite rule in Syria Šarri-Kušuh—Šahurunuwa—Ini-Tešup—Talmi-Tešup. Their rule roughly coincides with those of the Hittite and other kings. Spanning four generations, the Kargamıs dynasty remained in rule for 150 years (Hawkins 1976-1980: 429).
   
Cult According to the documents of Suppiluliuma I after the capture of Kargamıs, no harm was done to the statues of Kubaba and other patron deities, and were integrated into the Hittite pantheon (Güterbock 1956: 120).
   
History Kargamıs served as a stronghold for North and middle Syria under the Mitannian rule. It may be supposed that the city was ruled by the high-ranking men of the Mitannian king, since no source survives citing local rulers (Klengel 1992:120). Kargamıs was captured in the eighth day after a seven-day siege under Suppiluliuma I. Indeed Kargamıs is the only kingdom in North Syria that was captured with siege and showed any resistance to the Hittites (Klengel 1992: 120). From the annals we learn that silver, gold and bronze spoils as well as 3330 captives were sent to the Hittite capital from Kargamıs. Suppiluliuma appointed his son Piyassili (Šarri-Kušuh in Hurrian) (Dinçol 2004: 51) as the king of the city (Güterbock 1956: 120), which can be dated to the middle of the six year Hurrian war, i.e. 1325 BC (Murray 2001: 56). Kargamıs king Sarri-Kusuh owed is exclusive position among the local kings to a agreement rather than a formal treaty with Suppiluliuma I.
His position also approved by Arnuwanda II and Mursili II (Klengel 1992: 121). As the king of Kargamıs Sarri-Kusuh would control the lands in North Syria and keep Mittanian Kingdom of Mattiwaza in check (Klengel 2002: 416). After entering the Hittite rule, Kargamıs helped the Hittite Empire to control many vassal kingdoms like Ugarit, Nuhassa and Amurru. Its importance is demonstrated by the fact that the Kargamıs kings
were regarded as witnesses in the political treaties and and that they were given various posts in the Hittite state (Dinçol 2004: 51). During the 14 and 13th centuries BC the Kargamıs king was the Hittite viceroy of Syria. In the peacetime he was in charge of the political entity South of the Taurus, and the highest ranked military officer in the war (Beckman 1993: 3).
   
   
Ancient Textual Documentation CTH 7: KBo 1.11 Obv. ! 21´, 27´
CTH 40.III.c)1.A: KUB 34.23 II 15´
CTH 40.IV.1.A: KBo 5.6 II 7, 9, III 1, 27 = CTH 40.IV.4.B: KBo 22.9 I? 5´, 7´, II 9
CTH 40.IV.1.A: KBo 5.6 II 44 = CTH 40.IV.1.E2: KUB 34.25 4´ (br.)
CTH 40.IV.1.E3: KBo 14.12 III 18, 21
CTH 40.V.1.A: KUB 19.13+ 14 II 38´
CTH 40.V.4: KBo 14.15 6´, 8´, 10´ (br.)
CTH 49.II: KBo 10.12 I 16´
CTH 50: KUB 19.27 Obv. 3´
CTH 51.I.A: KBo 1.1 Rev. 12´
CTH 52.I: KBo 1.3 Obv. 36
CTH 57: KBo 1.28 Obv. 13, 17
CTH 61.II.1: KUB 19.29 Obv. 13´
CTH 61.II.2.A: KUB 14.15 II 8, III 35
CTH 61.II.2.A: KUB 14.16 I 14, 21 (br.)
CTH 61.II.5.A: KUB 14.28+ I 29 (br.)
CTH 61.II.5.B: KBo 4.4 II 40ff. , 67, III 12ff.
CTH 63.A: KUB 19.31 II 4 (br.)
CTH 63.D: KUB 19.44 IV 3´, 6´
CTH 63.A: KBo 3.3 + = CTH 63.D: KUB 19.44 IV 3´, 6´
CTH 70.1.A: KUB 14.4 IV 10, 12, 14
CTH 75.A: KBo 1.6 Obv. 34, Rev. 18´
CTH 83.1.A: KUB 19.9 I 19´
CTH 84.1: KUB 21.16 I 22´
CTH 88: KBo 6.28 Obv. 17, 19
CTH 106.B.2: KBo 4.10 Obv. 37, Rev. 29
CTH 122.1.A: KBo 12.41 Obv. 5, 6
CTH 122.1.B: KUB 40.37 I 3 (br.)
CTH 172: KBo 1.10 Rev. 10
CTH 173: KBo 1.14 Obv. 7´ (br.)
CTH 186: KBo 18.48 Obv. 5
CTH 187: KBo 18.25 Rev. 3´, 6´, 9´ (br.)
CTH 196: KBo 9.81 1
CTH 208: KBo 28.79 Obv. 8´
CTH 208: KBo 36.102 7´
CTH 209: KBo 18.19 Rev. 6 , 9
CTH 209: KBo 18.76 Obv. 5 (br.)
CTH 211.3:KUB 19.32 6 (br.)
CTH 211.20: KUB 40.30 Obv. 2´ (br.)
CTH 212.10: KUB 31.126 2´
CTH 214.2: KUB 23.61 9´
CTH 214.15: KUB 23.39 Obv. 3´
CTH 216: KBo 36.109 4´
CTH 225.A: KUB 26.43 Rev. 29 = CTH 225.B: 50+ Rev. 26´
CTH 241.17: KBo 18.176 II 6´ (br.)
CTH 525.13: KUB 48.113 I 5´
CTH 530: KUB 53.34 Obv. 3´
CTH 569.II.3.A: KUB 16.32 10
CTH 572: KBo 13.76 Obv. 7 compare 3
CTH 577: IBoT 1.32 Obv. 29
CTH 577: KUB 50.60 I 7
CTH 579: KUB 49.25 IV 1´ (br.)
CTH 582: KUB 22.16 3´
CTH 582: VBoT 25 I 2 (br.)
CTH 590: KUB 48.93 8´
CTH 661.5: KUB 11.8+ 9 III 4 (br.), V 16´
CTH 661.6: KUB 36.124 I 7
CTH 664: KBo 17.82 Obv.? 15´
2BoTU 23A I 37
StBoTB 1 II 79, 82, IV 31
   
   
Net of Routes
   
Localization
(sure or highly probable)
It is located on the border of Euphrates (Hawkins 1976-1980: 435), at the juncture of the routes between North Syria and Anatolia. It is bordered by Syrian plain in the South and mountainous areas rich in raw material in the North (Dinçol 2004: 50). The remains of the upper city and fortress is to be found in Karkamış village in Nizip district of Gaziantep, while lower city is in the Cerablus/Cerabis (Hierapolis) village of Syria (Peker 2005: 38; Hawkins 1976-1980: 435 vd.).
   
Other Localization Proposals
   
   
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  Filled by (11.04.2013 17:40:19)
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