The Cultural Heritage of Hittite Anatolia
An International and Interdisciplinary Project for a

Hittite Historical Atlas
 

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Halpa

Other Hittite Names:

Inventory No 3006
   
Geographical Type City Land
Determinative URU KUR KUR.URU
   
   
Literature Alpman, A., 1981-82: “Hurriler”, TAD 14/ 25: 283-313.

D’Alfonso L., 2007: “Talmi-Šarruma judge? Some thoughts on the jurisdiction of the kings of Aleppo during the Hittite Empire”, 6HitCongr1:159-169.

Archi, A., 1999: “Hattušili I and the Treaty with Talmi-Šarruma of Aleppo again”, NABU 1999 39-40.

Astour, M.C., 1989:Hittite History and Absolute Chronology of the Bronze Age, Partille.

Barnett, R.D., 1948: “Hittite Hieroglyphic Texts at Aleppo”, Iraq 10:122-139.

Bossert, H. Th., 1954: “Bemerkungen zu einer hieroglyphen Hethitischen Inschrift aus Aleppo”, Syria 31: 225-253.

Dinçol, A., 2005: “3300. Yılında Kadeš Savaşı Dünyanın İlk Yazılı Barış Antlaşması”, Bilim ve Ütopya Dergisi 138: 30-36.

Goetze, A., 1928-29:, “Die historische Einleitung des Aleppo-Vertrages (KBo 1.6)”, MAOG 4: 59-66.

Gurney, O.R., 1973: “Anatolica c. 1750-1600 B.C.”, CAH II/1: 228-255.

Hoffmann, I., 1984: Der Erlass Telipinus, Heidelberg.

Houwink ten Cate, Ph.H.J., 1984: “The History of Warfare According to Hittite Sources: The Annals of Hattusili I (Part II)”, Anatolica 11: 47-82.

Hawkins, J.D., 2011: “The inscriptions of the Aleppo temple” , AnSt 61: 35-54.

Klengel, H., 1999: Geschichte des Hethitischen Reiches, Leiden.

Klengel, H., 1964: “Ein neues Fragment zur historischen Einleitung des Talmišarruma-Vertrages, ZA 56: 213-217.

Klengel, H., 1992:Syria 3000 to 300 B. C., A Handbook of Political History, Berlin.

Kohlmeyer , K., 1999-2000: “Ḫalab: Neues zu Aleppo im 2. und 1. Jahrtausend vor Christus” , NBA 16: 111-130.

Kohlmeyer, K., 2009: “The Temple of the Storm God in Aleppo during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages”, NEA 72/4: 190-196.

Kohlmeyer, K., 2000: Der Tempel des Wettergottes von Aleppo, Münster .

Kümmel, H.M., 1985: “Die Annalen Hattusilis I”, TUAT I/5 : 455-563.

del Monte G.F., 1975: “ I testimoni del trattato con Aleppo (KBo 1 6)”, RSO 49: 1-10.

del Monte G. F., 1992: Die Orts und Gewässernamen der Hethitischen Texte, RGTC 6/2.

del Monte G. F.- J. Tischer, 1978: Die Orts und Gewässernamen der Hethitischen Texte, RGTC 6.

Nashef, Kh., 1991: Die Orts-und Gewässernamen der altassyrischen Zeit, RGTC 4.

Soysal, O., 1981: “Zukrasi Metni ve Diğer Tarihsel Konulu Boğazköy Tabletleri Işığında M.Ö. 16. yy. Halap-Hassu(wa) ile Hitit Siyasal İlişkileri”, F. Ü. Ed. Fak. Derg. I/2: 15-64.

Sosyal, O., 1987: “KUB 31.4+ KBo 3.41 und 40 (Die Puhanu Chronik) zum Thronseit Hattusilis”, Hethitica 8:173-253.
















   
   
Administration
   
Cult The worship of the Storm God of Halap holds an important place in the Hittite pantheon. His name recurs frequently in the religious documents and treaties.
   
History In the reign of Hattusili I, North Syria was ruled by the powerful Yamhad Kingdom, with its capital being at Halap. Hattusili did not underatake a direct military action against the kingdom, but when he arrived at Hassuwa, a city subject to Yamhad, it was reported that the Halappan troops were supporting the city. (KBo 10.1 obv. 31-35). The Puhanu Chronicle says that after his victory over the enemy at Arinna, Hattusili I ordered battle preparations against Halap, but the campaign was cancelled due to a Hurrian attack on Anatolia. (KUB 31.4+KBo 3.41 obv. 20). From the Zuraksi Chronicle we learn that the Halappan king sent “Zukrasi, the commander of the heavy infantry and the Zaudi, the chief of the MANDA troopers” to aid Hassuwa (KBo 7.14 obv. II 14-16). According to the Ursu Siege Text dated to the reign of Hattusili I, Halap formed a coalition with Hassuwa and backed Ursu against the Hittites (KUB 1.11 rev. 25). In KBo 3.27 28,31 Halpa is listed together with Zalpa and Hassuwa. The historical introduction passage of the agreement between Mursili II, one of the kings of the Hittite Imperial Period, and Halappan king Talmi-Sarruma states that Halap was captured by Mursili II, the successor to Hattusili I. (KBo 1.6 11,14). The Telepinu Edict too mentions that Mursili I destroyed Halap and brought the NAMRA and goods back to Hattusa (KBo 3.1 obv. I 28,29). On the other hand, the Hantili Text (KBo 3.57) notes that Mursili I marched on to Halap and captured it, an unfinished task given by his father to him, which he fulfilled as an act of retaliation. The treaty between Musrili II and Talmi-Sarruma of Halap mentions that after Mursili I, Halap was recaptured bt Tudhaliya II (KBo 1.6 7,13). It seems that the city was temporarily lost during the turmoil in the Hittite Empire, probably in the reign of Zidanta and only after a long time did the city reconquered. It is possible that after death Tudhaliya II, probably in the reign of Hattusili II, Halap fell under the rule of Mitanni (Alpman 1981-82, 297 vd.) In the Hittite Imperial Period, in the reign of Suppiluliuma I, Halap was again under the Hittite rule. The king appointed his son Telepinu to Halap as priest-king and left its administration to him (Klengel 1992: 114). The preface of the treaty between Mursili II and Talmi-Sarruma give information about the Halap-Hittite relations starting from the Old and Middle Hittite periods. It describes the conquest of North Syria by Suppiluliuma I, how the king broket he the resistance in the lands of Halap, Kargamıs and Nuhasse, redrwaing the borders of Astata, Halap and Nuhasse (Astour 1989: 39). A copy of this text kept by the vassal state was later lost whereupon the treaty was sealed and sent to Halap by Muwatalli and the terms signed in the reign of Mursili II were confirmed (Dinçol 2005: 32).
   
   
Ancient Textual Documentation CTH 4.I: KBo 10.1 Obv. 32; 38
CTH 7: KBo 1.11 Rev.! 25; 28
CTH 11.B: KUB 26.72 9
CTH 14 IV.A: KBo 7.14+ KUB 36.100 II 14´; 15
CTH 14.IV.C: KUB 36.102 4´ (br.)
CTH 14.:V.A: KBo 12.14 Rev. 4 (?); 5
CTH 16.a.A: KUB 31.4+ 2BoTU 14 Obv. 20
CTH 16.a.C: KBo 13.78 Rev. 6´ (br.)
CTH 19.II.B : KUB 11.1 I 27
CTH 42.A: KBo 5.3 I 42
CTH 49.II: KBo 10.12 I 16
CTH 51.I.A: KBo 1.1 Obv. 30; Rev. 42´; 46
CTH 51.I.B: KBo 1.2 Obv. 11
CTH 53.A: KBo 1.4 II 14
CTH 61.II.5.B: KBo 4.4 III 15; 16
CTH 62.II.A:KBo 22.39 III 9´; 16´ (br.)
CTH 69.B: KUB 19.50 IV 3
CTH 75.A :KBo 1.6 Obv. 3 (passim); 18; 26; Rev. 15´
CTH 75.B :KUB 3.6 Obv. 18´ (br.); 22
CTH 75.C: KUB 3.5 Rev. 4´; 9´ (br.)
CTH 76.A: KUB 21.1+ IV 4
CTH 76.E: HT 8 11
CTH 83.1.A: KUB 19.9 I 18
CTH 88: KBo 6.28 Rev. 33
CTH 106 B.2: KBo 4.10 Obv. 52
CTH 133: KUB 26.41 Obv. 8; 10
CTH 135: KUB 3.21 Rev. 31
CTH 154: KUB 19.20 Obv. 13 (br.)
CTH 156.A: KBo 1.15 Rev. 20 (br.)
CTH 156.A: KBo 1.22 Rev. 6´
CTH 163.2: KUB 3.62 Obv. 18
CTH 179.1: IBoT 1.34 Obv. 8
CTH 209: KBo 18.76 Obv. 5; Rev. 6
CTH 209: KBo 18.93 1´
CTH 268: KBo 19.58 19
CTH 277.4.A: KUB 30.51+ 45+ HSM 3644 II 14
CTH 279.1: KUB 30.56 III 10; 26´ (br.)
CTH 376.II.A: KUB 24.3 II 46
CTH 378.IV.A: KUB 14.13 I 16
CTH 381.A: KUB 6.45 I 43; 51
CTH 381.B: KUB 6.46 II 9; 16; 39
CTH 470.2: KBo 2.20 I 13 (br.)
CTH 470.1266: KBo 13.160 Obv. 5
CTH 547.I: KBo 7.6 1
CTH 563.2: KUB 5.4 III 1
CTH 564: KUB 18.12 Obv. 2; 4; 6; 15; Rev. 8´; 11´; 14
CTH 569:II.1.A: KUB 22.35 III 13
CTH 569:II.3.A: KUB 16.32 8
CTH 570: KUB 5.6 IV 9
CTH 575.1: IBoT 1.33 22; 43; 44
CTH 577: KUB 18.23 IV 9
CTH 578: KUB 22.36 Rev.? 14
CTH 604.A: KBo 10.20 III 19
CTH 616.3: KBo 11.46 V 16
CTH 625.1.A: KBo 4.13 I 46
CTH 626.Ü.2.A: IBoT 2.8 Rev. 6´
CTH 664.1.B: KBo 21.26 I 11
CTH 670.233: KBo 34.175 r.Kol. 5
CTH 670.553: KBo 8.105 5´
CTH 670.1699: KUB 44.38 Rev. 1
CTH 670.1719: IBoT 3.19 Rev. 2´ (br.)
CTH 698: KBo 22.246 II 6; 18; III 21
CTH 698.I.A: KBo 14.142 I 4 (passim); IV 4
CTH 698.1.B: KUB 27.13 I 1; 10
CTH 698.1.C: KUB 27.15 IV 2´; 3´; 13´; 15´; 17´; 21´; 26´
CTH 698.3: KUB 42.103 III? 16´; IV? 3´; 15
CTH 701.f.15: KUB 47.101 IV 3
CTH 705: IBoT 2.70 2
CTH 706: KBo 21.31 I 4
CTH 712.A: KUB 27.1 I 57
CTH 782: KBo 19.135 III 8
CTH 791: KBo 8.147 3
2BoTU 10 30
2BoTU 20 II 13´ (br.)
2BoTU 21.3 5
2BoTU 20 II 14
2BoTU 19 6
2BoTU 21 III 6´
2BoTU 23A I 28
2BoTU 10 31
   
   
Net of Routes
   
Localization
(sure or highly probable)
The modern city of Halep in North Syria.
   
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  Filled by (09.10.2013 15:06:05)
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